Four of the 17 categories that are included in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia (b330 Fluency and rhythm of speech functions, b530 Weight maintenance functions, b640 Sexual functions, and b765 Involuntary movement functions) did not achieve consensus in the Delphi study (see S1 Table for more details). Schizophrenia is currently classified as a psychotic disorder. Antipsychotic drugs aren’t the only treatment people with schizophrenia need. For the 70 million people affected worldwide, please know, that it’s not your … This category belongs to chapter e1 Products and Technology, and it should be noted that the ICF-CS for schizophrenia already contains four categories from the same chapter (i.e., e110 Products or substances for personal consumption, e125 Products and technology for communication, e130 Products and technology for education and e165 Assets). Further information about the experts who formed part of this study is available as supplementary data (S2 Text). Is the Subject Area "Schizophrenia" applicable to this article? Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder associated with impairment in functioning. All categories reported by at least 5% of the experts were listed and presented to the panel in the second Delphi round. Data curation, Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that involves a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors that contribute to its clinical phenotype and the underlying endophenotype. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.g001. Schizophrenia - Psychology bibliographies - in Harvard style . Table 3 lists the categories that did not match in the two sets of data (the set of categories included in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia and the set of categories that reached consensus). A multidisciplinary approach to both assessment and clinical intervention is essential to support individuals with this health condition. However, there was a significant difference between these two groups in years of experience (p < .01), since the invited experts who did not respond were less experienced than those who did take part. A total of 175 psychologists from 46 countries covering the six WHO regions answered the first-round survey (78.5% of the 223 who were sent the survey material). Treatment is directed at ameliorating acute psychosis and reducing relapses. Yes Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Aggregation of third- and fourth-level categories to their corresponding second-level category yielded a list of 223 second-level ICF categories. [2 *], over 60 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have subsequently examined the efficacy of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for psychosis (CBTp).These trials have typically looked at the effectiveness of CBTp in improving the core symptoms of schizophrenia … Journal of Abnormal Psychology Emotion Deficits in Schizophrenia: Timing Matters Ann M. Kring, Marja Germans Gard, and David E. Gard Online First Publication, November 8, 2010. doi: 10.1037/a0021402 Myth #1 Having schizophrenia is a sign of moral failing or weakness. Risperidone (oral forms) for people with schizophrenia 6 October 2017 | Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Vol. This is a multistage process in which each stage or round builds on the results of the previous one in order to gather and provide information about a particular subject . Increased repulsion of working memory representations in schizophrenia. For You ... Journal of Pediatric Psychology, March 25, 2020 . Section 1: Diagnosis and Classification of Schizophrenia . Personal factors were defined as the particular background of an individual’s life and living situation (e.g., age) . There was a plan, a structure, and a method to my search. In order to be able to compare our findings with the ICF-CSs for schizophrenia, which comprise solely second-level categories, all third- and fourth-level categories identified in the Delphi process were aggregated to their corresponding second-level category. All categories included in the Brief ICF-CS for schizophrenia were selected by 75% or more of participating experts, thus supporting the relevance of the categories that form this ICF-CS. Original Article. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology ® publishes articles on basic research and theory in the broad field of psychopathology and other abnormal behaviors, their determinants, and correlates.. Analysis of microbiota in first episode psychosis identifies preliminary associations with … Adapted from the Encyclopedia of Psychology. Schizophrenia is a devastating illness with an early adulthood onset and persistent course. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click The two ICF-CSs for schizophrenia are available for free download at: https://www.icf-research-branch.org/icf-core-sets-projects2/mental-health/icf-core-set-for-schizophrenia. All potential participants received an invitation with basic information about the study and what would be required of them. Clinical treatment of schizophrenia. Table 1 shows participants’ demographic and professional characteristics. Although a significant minority of the general public also believed them to be liable to commit violent and sexual offences against the person, on average they were not rated as dangerous. In this article, I shall focus on psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia and explore how the corresponding data aligns with theoretical concepts developed by Lev Vygotsky and Aleksei Leontiev. Change style powered by CSL. 1. Data regarding the categories presented to experts in rounds two and three and the degree of consensus reached are shown in the first two rows of Table 2. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936, Editor: Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, University of La Rioja, SPAIN, Received: January 26, 2019; Accepted: May 21, 2019; Published: June 6, 2019. The research evidence for schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to help individuals with this health condition, and psychological interventions are considered a priority. Our aim was to recruit a panel of experts as broad and heterogeneous as possible and to achieve consensus and common opinion despite and across this variability. With respect to the Body functions component, an agreement of 75% or higher was achieved for 14 categories. Supervision, The ICF provides just such a framework. The four journals that published the most studies of motivation in schizophrenia were Schizophrenia Research (46 published studies), Psychiatry Research (18), Schizophrenia Bulletin (12), and the Journal of Abnormal Psychology (8). Yes As this category also reached consensus in the validation study from the perspective of psychiatrists it clearly reflects a problem area for these patients [28,29], and therefore its exclusion from the ICF-CS for schizophrenia should be reconsidered. They were reminded that the aim was to obtain a final list that was both short enough to be applicable in clinical practice and sufficiently comprehensive to cover the most important needs of people with schizophrenia. The focus on recent advances in the neurobiology of schizophrenia has pushed aside the psychological understanding of the person with schizophrenia for several decades. J. Gómez-Benito was the author who received the funding. The categories included in the ICF-CSs for schizophrenia were also listed. It has a multifactorial etiology, with numerous individual variables interacting with several environmental factors . There were no significant differences in age, gender, or years of experience in treating individuals with schizophrenia between the groups that responded across rounds 1 to 3. Angus MacDonald, III, PhD. Based on previous studies [14,20], consensus was defined as agreement among at least 75% of participants. The goal of the present study was to build on this by exploring content validity from the perspective of psychologists, another group of health professionals closely involved in the care of individuals with schizophrenia. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript. (1995). Of the 1,555 health professionals who agreed to take part and who provided demographic and professional data, 223 were psychologists who met the eligibility criteria and who were therefore invited to begin round one of this study. The ICF is based on a multidimensional, biopsychosocial approach (see Fig 1) and considers a patient’s functioning as a dynamic interaction between the underlying health condition and specific personal and environmental contextual factors. Responses in the first Delphi round were logged using an online survey system (www.qualtrics.com). Indeed, we sought to obtain a sample of experts that, as far as possible, reflected worldwide variety in all the variables considered (e.g., gender, age, years of experience, and region). 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